Post Your Paper Abstract Here

Post Your Paper Abstract Here

January 23, 2009

Hello Class,

You can start posting your paper abstracts here. Just click on the comments link below and paste your 250 word(ish) abstract and annotated bibliography. The abstract and bibliography dosen't have to be in any style (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc).

With the abstract, I'm looking for clear examples of what you plan to discuss in the paper and the anticipated outcomes of your research. In the bibliography I'm looking for how you think the resource will support your paper topic which can be stated with a sentence or two.

The rough drafts and final papers will need to be in the Chicago Style with properly cited footnotes or endnotes.

39 Responses to Post Your Paper Abstract Here

  1. Michele Kaminski says:

    Michele Kaminski – Abstract –
    This paper will analyze the work of the illustrator Thomas Nast during his time at Harper’s Weekly magazine and his collection of Christmas drawings. His work began as a war correspondent during the Civil War and his editorial cartoons gained him the title of the “father of American editorial cartooning.” He also created many of the popular culture icons and symbols still used today such as Santa Claus, the Republican Donkey, and the Democratic Elephant. Nast’s illustrations became so popular during the Civil War, it could be argued he was the “father of photojournalism” before photography was the standard. Nast’s fierce political views and a relatively free reign at Harper’s allowed him to influence public opinion of the war and a variety of political elections. Nast’s work was filled with stinging satire, social conflicts, and comical allusions but just as important as his political cartooning was his work done based on the poem by Clement Moore, “Night before Christmas.” His portrayal of Santa Claus and the North Pole are images even twenty-first century children dream of the night before Christmas.
    The artwork of Thomas Nast created a sense of connection for the American people during a very tumultuous time. His work allowed the public a look at the devastation and horrors of war firsthand and he continually fought for justice, equality, and the American ideal. Nast’s illustrative work helped to create an American visual culture and continues to influence that visual culture today. – Annotated Bibliography –
    Irwin, Grace. Trail-Blazers of American Art. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1930.
    I haven’t had a chance to look at this one – it is on micro-film. –
    Johnston, Patricia, ed. Seeing High & Low: Representing Social Conflict in American
    Visual Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
    This book contains an article on cultural racism during the civil war and some of
    the art work Thomas Nast did during this period. It also discusses the editorial
    commentary Nast made with his illustrations during the civil war period. –
    Nast, Thomas. Thomas Nast’s Christmas Drawings. New York: Dove Publications, 1978.
    Originally published as Thomas Nast’s Christmas Drawings for the Human Race.
    New York: Harper & Brothers, 1890.
    This book contains the printed drawings of Santa Claus done by Nast. –
    Owens, Richard A. An Index to the Illustrations of Harper’s Weekly during the Civil War Years, 1861-1865. Fairfax, VA: R.A. Owens, 2000.
    I haven’t had a chance to look at this yet – it is in the special collections. –
    Paine, Albert Bigelow. Th. Nast: His Period and His Pictures. reprint Harper & Row
    Publishers, 1967. Gloucester, MA: The Pearson Publishing Company, 1904.
    This book recounts Nast’s life history and contains all of the illustrations Nast did
    during his lifetime. –
    Vinson, J. Chal. “Thomas Nast and the American Political Scene.” American Quarterly,
    9, no. 3 (Autumn, 1957): 337-344.
    This article discusses the editorial cartooning of Nast.

  2. Jessica Campbell says:

    I have had some difficulty trying to decide exactly what topic I would like to write my historical paper about; I knew I would like to include graphic design because I am curious to learn more about graphic design in the past, and the designers that have made design what it is today. In that respect, the topic of women and the history of computer layout caught my attention.
    Women like Barbara Kruger and April Greiman were pioneers of digital graphic design. April Greiman was a part of the “New Wave” design which was very important; Greiman had studied under Weingart, she would make her “hybrid imagery” using a computer. She was one of the first to begin to create design layouts on a computer. Greiman did a lot of layering using the computers. Barbara Kruger also did a lot of work on the computer. Barbara Kruger and April Greiman used the layout to place text and images on top of each other, in a way it became a modern version of a collage, as shown through a lot April Greiman’s works. These two women, and others, are so important because many men at the time were refusing to use computers, for example Paul Rand, Milton Glaser, and others. Women were open to the idea of computer usage and paved the way that eventually led to the design we practice today.
    Hollis, Richard. Graphic Design: A Concise History. New York: Thames and Hudson Inc. , 1994.
    This book is full of information on the history of graphic design, and it breaks up the topics very well, helping to show the clear differences.
    Woodham, Jonathan M. . Twentieth-Century Design . New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
    This book is actually one of our textbooks, but it too contains a few small pieces of information about April Greimer.
    Meggs, Philip B., and Alston W. Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
    This too is a textbook for the class, but it is full of great examples in relation to my topic.
    I have about 18 other books requested through Mobius, some of which will be here Monday, other later in the week, I will update my comment/add another comment later in the week when my other books arrive.
    Sorry this comment looks weird! It will not recognize my enters that I have added in!

  3. Alison Daake says:

    Bauhaus is a key component in teaching modern design and architecture in today’s world. For my paper I want to analyze the revolutionary techniques and theories that made this school so important. It had a diverse influence on numerous creative fields, such as architecture, graphic design, and art in general. To be pertinent in teaching so many diverse fields of study, Bauhaus had to have groundbreaking teaching techniques.
    William Morris, someone we discussed in class, helped begin the Arts and Crafts Movement against the Industrial Revolution. This movement helped artists look for a higher quality of products. This new view against the Industrial Revolution helped Germany examine schools in England and find a system of reform. The leaders of the Bauhaus called to action all forms of art to band together against the mass production of the Industrial Revolution and create quality goods. Graphic design evolved from the use of the woodcuts and lithographs of printmaking. From there, the combination of the images and typography birthed a new way to advertise.
    For my historical content paper I want to explore the Bauhaus’ impact on today’s graphic design and schools of design. Its influence on architecture might also be touched on slightly. I would also like to discuss the Bauhaus Manifesto and its effect on the education process and the mission of the school as a whole.
    Works Cited
    Franciscono, Marcel. Walter Gropius and the Creation of the Bauhaus in Weimar: the
    ideals and artistic theories of its founding years. University of Illinois Press.
    Urbana: 1971.
    I think this book will help me in understanding the theories behind the teaching techniques. It should also help me with the background behind the foundation of the school.
    Forgacs, Eva. The Bauhaus Idea and Bauhaus Politics. Oxford University Press. New
    York: 1995.
    This book should explain the whole idea of the school and what the founders went through to get the school off the ground and other struggles of the program.
    Bauhaus: The Face of the 20th Century. Producer. Julia Cave. Written and Narrated by
    Frank Whitford. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1996.
    This movie explores the development of the Bauhaus and its founders as well as the political climate of Germany at the time.

  4. Tara Larson says:

    The flourishing of the printing press and rebel design of the American Revolution led to a patriotic passion. This newly established fervor created an atmosphere of freedom paving the way for a publically open, and informative means of visual communication. I will explore this thesis by looking at the works of Paul Revere known historically as an influential messenger, yet contributed to recording the major events of the Revolution through his line engravings. One of his most famous pieces being, The Bloody Massacre. I think this is a good example of a way of not only graphically recording history, but recreating an event to inform the public. The book Paul Revere’s Boston will help me take a deeper look at his other works, and it contains other designs and paper’s by influential revolutionaries. These works will allow me to explore the communicative design of that period. It seems early design of this time was mostly created to inform an audience, yet there was still a central focus on how to gain an individual’s intrigue.
    I will also look at periodicals such as the Pennsylvanischer, Virginia Gazette, and New York Gazetteer. The vast spread and high demand of these newspapers began in order to inform colonists about the pressures Great Britain was implementing on the Americas. Each newspaper established their own identities thus leading to layout design, and the enablement of innovations to the printing press. Some information on these ideas is available in The Revolutionary War by John M. Thompson. I will also use the book The Development of the Colonial Newspaper by Sidney Kobre to further research this aspect of my paper. I expect to learn about fonts, designs, and the informative aspect and original goals of these early revolutionary newspapers.
    Finally, propaganda design work started with communicating anti British ideas continues to exist to this day. I want to discover some examples of the posters that existed, along with the theories and design that were used to portray the messages. I will use the book Propaganda and the American Revolution by Philip Davidson to further explore the theories of the artists. Overall, the book Revolutionary War Era by Randall Huff contains topics on visual arts and advertising; it will also be beneficial in forming the total overall theory of the focus of my paper.
    Works Cited
    Annotated Bibliography
    Davidson, Philip. Propaganda and the American Revolution. 1763-1783. Durham, NC:
    University Press of North Carolina, 1941.
    Huff, Randall. Revolutionary War Era. Westport, Greenwood Press, 2004.
    Kobre, Sidney. The Development of the Colonial Newspaper. Pittsburg, Colinial Press,
    Thompson John. The Revolutionary War. Washington, D.C., National Geographic
    Society, 2004.
    Whitehill, Walter. Paul Revere’s Boston: 1735-1818. Boston, Museum of Fine Arts,

  5. Vanita Weber says:

    Abstract: Historical Context
    In a time where our economy is weak and the stability of our Country shaky, it is important to consider what effects this could place on the arts and design. My research is based around what effects the Great Depression had on design in America. Before the Depression, America was behind many other countries in the area of design. It was not until after the stock market crashed and the onset of the Depression that American designers began to develop their own style for which they were known nationally. Consumer’s dollars were tight and the appearances of the product became a top priority for the first time. It was not without a lot of hard work and sacrifice, but the depression actually forced Americans to be more creative and start to consider more the needs of the consumer in the process of the design. Not only was products designed with the experiences of the consumer in mind, more attention was paid to the working class as much or more than the elite. Fully aware of the popular ideals in which to draw in the consumers, designers were able to sell modernism through a balance of what Kristina Wilson claims as “artful simplicity and space-saving efficiency” (13). Through this paper I will attempt to address how many, now historically famous designers, throughout the depression used it as their opportunity to create smart, affordable designs for a wider consumer audience. This in turn, changed the way Americans were viewed, as well as how the nation viewed the field of design.
    Annotated Bibliograpy
    Abercrombie, Stanley. George Nelson: the design of modern design. Cambridge, Mass:
    MIT Press, c1995.
    This book is a discussion on some of the great American designers of the twentieth century including George Nelson and Charles Eames. The author obtained access to many of Nelson’s personal archives and papers and had an intimate look at his way of thinking and design issues he faced. Abercrombie also interviewed many of Nelson’s friends to offer more insights on the life of this designer.
    Baigell, Matthew. “The Beginnings of “The American Wave” and the Depression,” Art
    Journal, Vol.27, No. 4 Summer, 1968, pp. 387-398. College Art Association. [journal online]; available from; Internet. Accessed 24 January 2009.
    Among the topics that this article discusses as impacts on American art from the Depression is how the new attitude toward the artists’ role in society was changed during this period. Acknowledges that America would for the first time be recognized nationally for their own style.
    Eskilson, Stephen. Graphic design: a new history. New Haven: Yale University Press,
    This book is an overview of the origins of typography and graphic design. It
    includes a section discussing design during the period of the 1930’s
    Cogdell, Christina, ed. and Susan Currell, ed. Popular Eugenics: National Efficiency and
    American Mass Culture in the 1930’s. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2006.
    This book is a collection of scholarly articles that discuss the history of eugenics in the 1930’s. Although it was not without sacrifice and hard work the improvement of physical and mental qualities of human beings were transformed during the Depression years through a wide variety of popular media.
    Kirkham, Pat. Charles and Ray Eames: designers of the twentieth century. Cambridge,
    Mass: MIT Press, 1998.
    Kirkham discusses the dynamic designing duo team of Charles and Ray Eames.
    This team succeeded in the field of design after enduring the harsh effects of the great depression. It examines the collaboration of the team and their multimedia presentations, exhibitions, and films. One section tells of how during the depression a fed up Charles left his wife and daughter for an eight-month visit to Mexico. He spent some time painting, but was even arrested twice. The book also mentions the devastation the Depression placed upon architectural and building trades.
    Meggs, Philip B., Alston W. Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. 4th ed.
    Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
    Offers an overview on the history of Graphic Design.
    Wilson, Kristina. Livable Modernism Interior Decorating and Design during the Great
    Depression. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004.
    This book offers insight on a variety of designers in the 1930’s and how the
    Depression impacted the way they designed for the middle class instead just the elite consumers. She discusses the importance of their philosophies, innovations and the influence they had on design of this era as well as popular styles of this
    Woodham, Jonathan M. Twentieth-Century Design. Oxford, New York: Oxford
    University Press, 1977.
    This book is an overview of the history of twentieth-century design.

  6. Jaime Chambers says:

    It is not unusual for any mention of the word “propaganda” to summon mental images of communist Russia, with its glorification of the working class and its posters of Stalin in stoic profile. Soviet propaganda was not just a product of the Communist Revolution, however — it was influenced by decades of pre-revolutionary design. Before the word “Bolshevik” had even entered the lexicon, there was already a thriving Soviet visual culture, which included icon paintings, illustrated woodcuts, and satirical cartoons. My paper will discuss how each of these factors influenced the production of Soviet propaganda posters, while placing the posters themselves in the context of the history of design.
    In the midst of this discussion, I will also explore how design can be used as a tool of inspiration, persuasion, and even control. Since Soviet posters were produced under direct supervision of the Communist Party, they were designed with a political purpose in mind. Any designers who did not comply with these ideals found themselves subject to censorship. So my paper will not only serve as an examination of the historical context of Soviet propaganda, but also as a discussion of the purposes of such propaganda – of how Soviet design worked to forge a national identity, build support for communism, and discourage opposing ideas.
    Ades, Dawn. The 20th Century Poster: Design of the Avant-Garde. New York: Abbeville Press, 1989.
    This book will mostly be useful for understanding the historical factors that influenced global poster design (which will then help me place Soviet posters in a broader design context).
    Aulich, James. War Posters: Weapons of Mass Communication. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2007.
    This book discusses political posters as an instrument of influencing public opinion during times of conflict (both military and ideological), which will help me make connections between design history and social history.
    Norris, Stephen. A War of Images: Russian Popular Prints, Wartime Culture, and National Identity, 1812-1945. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 2006.
    The last three chapters discuss how the Soviet visual culture contributed to the Soviet national identity.
    Paret, Peter, Beth Irwin Lewis, and Paul Paret. Persuasive Images. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.
    This book is essentially a collection of political posters from the Hoover Instituation Archives. The most useful chapter will probably be the section on Revolutionary Posters, as it includes a number of Soviet images.
    Schnapp, Jeffrey. Revolutionary Tides: The Art of the Political Poster, 1914-1989. Milan, Italy: Skira Editore, 2005.
    This book has lots of good images of political posters, and plenty of information on how design can be used as an instrument of political persuasion.
    Ward, Alex, ed. Power to the People: Early Soviet Propaganda Posters in The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Jerusalem: The Israel Museum, 2007.
    This book is full of images of early (often pre-revolution) Soviet posters, including examples of the Rosta Window posters, which used cartoon-strip-like frames to send a political message.
    White, Stephen. The Bolshevik Poster. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988.
    This book gives Soviet-specific information on the design of propaganda posters, including the historical context, major design themes, and impact on future designers.

  7. Elizabeth Bishop says:

    — Abstract —
    This paper will analyze the influence and impact that William Morris had on the future advancements of the graphic design industry. This topic will be mostly concerned with Morris’ life while he was running the Klemscott press. I plan to discuss Morris’ role in advocating for a unity between art and craft. The purpose of this was to make good quality design available to the masses. Morris strongly believed that every person had a right to it, not just the privileged.
    The Klemscott press produced some of the most intricate and elaborate book designs in history. The detail and craftsmanship that were put into the creation of these designs were reflections of the Arts and Crafts movement taking place during that time in history. I plan to discuss the impact of these designs on the future of book design production. While the designs were extremely ornate they also show deliberate thought concerning page composition as well as readability.
    I plan to discuss Morris’ interest in the design of typefaces. He studied and analyzed typefaces of the past and pushed for greater quality and readability in the new typefaces that he created. This greatly impacted the design and craft quality as well as the variety of typefaces that we see in use today in print and other design.
    — Annotated Bibliography —
    MacCarthy, Fiona. William Morris: a life for our time. New York: Knopf, 1995.
    This book discusses Morris’ life and artistic influence.
    Macdonald, Bradley. William Morris and the aesthetic constitution of politics. Lanham, MD.: Lexington Books, 1999.
    This book discusses Morris’ views on socialism.
    Morris, May. William Morris, artist, writer, socialist. New York: Russell & Russell, 1966.
    This book discusses Morris’ views on socialism. It also discusses his work and influence.
    Naylor, Gillian. William Morris by himself: designs and writings. Boston: Little Brown, 1988.
    This book discusses Morris’ work and influence.
    Perry, Linda. William Morris. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1996.
    This book discusses the Klemscott Press and its production.
    Silver, Carole. Socialism and the literary artistry of William Morris. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1990.
    This book discusses Morris’ views on socialism.
    Thompson, E. P. William Morris: romantic to revolutionary. New York: Pantheon Books, 1977.
    This book discusses Morris’ views on socialism.
    Thompson, Susan. American book design & William Morris. New York: R. R. Bowker Co., 1977.
    This book discusses his influence on American design.
    Watkingson, Raymond. William Morris as designer. New York: Reinhold Publisher, 1967.
    This book discusses Morris’ work and influence.
    Weinroth, Michelle. Reclaiming William Morris: Englishness, sublimity, and the rhetoric of dissent. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1996.
    This book discusses Morris’ views on socialism. It also discusses his legacy.
    William Morris Society. The typographical adventure of William Morris. London: William Morris Society, 1958.
    This book discusses Morris’ work and influence.

  8. Zachary Klotz says:

    This paper will examine the evolution of typography and type design, as well as how communication was controlled and made available through time. Hand-made and handset type revolutionized communication in 1450 with the printing of the Gutenburg Bible. While the type was moveable, it was not free. The presses were controlled at the time by governments. This power was slowly passed down and made more and more available until there were books, flyers, and advertisements a plenty. By this time there were many fonts made in metal, and now wood. The woodcut fonts were more easily made and could be made at larger sizes and in more decorative styles. With the surplus of font types and sizes the typography and page design changed and letter styles were chosen only by what could occupy the space the best, and not what was aesthetically pleasing. This was the mindset of the Industrial Revolution: fast and efficient. With the Industrial Revolution new innovations were made in typesetting. The linotype could do the work of seven to eight hand setters, allowed for more pages in the average newspaper, and sped up the printing process at the same time which in turn made the newspaper cheaper and more easily accessable. In response to this “fast and efficient” manner, the Arts and Crafts movement returned to hand quality goods and printing. The using of better metals, woods, and papers communication and education were furthered even more by making the first color math textbook.
    Carter, Rob, Ben Day, Philip Meggs. Typographic Design: form and communication. New York: John Wiley, 1993.
    [Research for evolution of typology and typographic technology]
    Chamberlain, Walter. Manual of woodcut printmaking and related techniques. New York: Scribmer, 1978.
    [Techniques and uses for woodcut type]
    Drucker, Johanna. “Letterpress Language: Typography as a Meduim for the Visual Representation of Language.” Leonardo 17 (1984): 8-16.
    [A indepth look works that were printed on a handset letterpress]
    Ferguson, Lorraine and Douglass Scott. “A Time Line of American Typography.” Design Quarterly 148 (1990): 23-54.
    [History of typography from metal type to the computer and its use in communication]
    Goudy, Frederic W., Typologia : studies in type design & type making, with comments on the invention of typography, the first types, legibility, and fine printing. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.
    [Research on type founding and printing]
    Holtzberg-Call. The lost world of the craft printer. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992
    [Tools, techniques, hand vs. linotype]
    Innis, Harold A. “The Newspaper in Economic Development.” The Journal of Economic History 2 (1942): 1-33.
    [I haven’t gotten to read it yet but I am hoping for a good history of newspapers]
    Jubert, Roxane. Typography and Graphic Design: from antiquity to the present. Paris: Flammarion, 2006.
    [Type techniques and methods]
    Meggs, Philip B. and Alston W. Purvis, Megg’s History of Graphic Design. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
    [For examples on how changes in typography changed communication]
    Twyman, Michael. The British Library guide to printing: history and techniques. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.
    [History of types of printing from handset to digital revolution]

  9. Jordan Worcester says:

    Jordan N. Worcester
    Art 428 History of Design
    Topic: The Bauhaus’ influence on education
    From its establishment, the German Bauhaus school and its methods of education have been considered controversial, skeptical, and in many cases, eventually accepted and taken root in various teaching methodologies after its time. Even today at Truman State University, it is possible to see parallels between the historical educational system created within the Bauhaus and the system established within the art field at Ophelia Parrish as art students progress from foundational art classes into our fields of concentration. The objective of this topic is to discover how the Bauhaus was established, viewed, and either accepted or rejected.
    In cases where it has been rejected, it will be good to research what aspects of its system were not valued as well as the alternative method preferred to that of the Bauhaus. In cases where it has been adopted, it will be important to research its psychology, ideals, and educational structure and why these were so valued and effective. Maybe its students were discovered to be more successful coming from the Bauhaus than in other institutions. Perhaps it attracted teachers with more experience in its scholastic field. It might also be good to compare the teaching structure of the Bauhaus to other structures prior to its time.
    Important things to consider in this study will include historical information on the state of post-war Germany that led to the founding of the Bauhaus, how and by who it was founded, its original intent, its curricular structure, and its influence from isolation to internationalization.
    Graphic Design in Germany: 1890-1945
    Author: Jeremy Aynsley
    University of California Press, Berkeley 2000
    This text contains information on graphic designers, ideologies and exhibitions. One particular chapter centers around Modernism and Graphic Art Education by looking at the Bauhaus and the Reimann School.
    Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Graphic Design
    Editors: Michael Beirut, William Drenttel, Steven Heller, & DK Holland
    Allworth Press, New York 1994
    Contains many essays on modernism and the history of design. One particular essay focuses on the Bauhaus and its profound impact on modern design.
    Bauhaus Culture: From Weimar to the Cold War
    Editor: Kathleen James-Chakraborty
    University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 2006
    Contains many essays regarding the founding of the Bauhaus, classroom specifics, as well as its journey from isolation to internationalism with its acceptance in America.
    The Bauhaus and America: First Contacts: 1919-1936
    Author: Margret Kentgens-Craig
    The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge 1999
    Gives insight to America’s need for modernity and how the U.S. viewed the Bauhuas. This text also reveals the controversies over Bauhaus architecture as well as the open-mindedness and acceptance of this influential school.
    Man: Teaching Notes from the Bauhaus
    Author: Oskar Schlemmer
    The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge 1971
    Contains detailed information regarding the syllabi and principles of every area of art at the Bauhaus. I am very interested in comparing these classroom structures to the history of education since the Bauhuas as well as the philosophy and psychology chapters and how they compare to present teaching goals.
    Art, Music and Education as Strategies for Survival: Therestenstadt 1941-1945
    Editor: Anne D. Dutlinger
    Herodias, Inc., New York 2001
    Contains information on the methods and philosophies of introductory courses taught by Johannes Itten at the Bauhaus. Supports that the adaptation of Bauhaus curriculum exists today in art schools and colleges
    The Bauhaus: Masters and Students by Themselves.
    Editor: Frank Whitford
    The Overlook Press, Woodstock 1992
    This text features the prehistory of the Bauhaus, its first years revolving around Weimar, its second phase in relation to Dessau, and its final phase in Berlin.
    The Bauhaus Reassessed: Sources and Design Theory.
    Author: Gillian Naylor
    The Herbert Press Limited, Great Britain 1985
    Contains sources on educational theory. I am very interested in a chapter on Johannes Itten and his basic courses and instructional psychology.
    Bauhaus in America: Repercussion and Further Development
    Author: Hans M. Wingler
    Druck, Berlin 1972
    This source features quotes from designers and institutes outside of the Bauhaus comparing their educational values to those of the Bauhaus. Also in this text are many photos and illustrations of artwork and architecture from the Bauhuas.
    Bauhaus and Bauhaus People: Personal Opinions and Recollections of former Bauhaus Members.
    Author: Eckhard, Neumann
    Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York 1970
    As this title is pretty self-explanitory, this text does indeed contain writings from people such as Walter Gropius, Johannes Itten and Herbert Bayer. Some of these writings focus on the new outlook on the educational foundations of the Bauhaus.
    Teaching at the Bauhaus.
    Author: Rainer K. Wick
    Hatje Cantz Publishers, Germany 2000
    Features the pedagogy, background, and ideals of the Bauhaus. Further on in the text, I am interested in the sections regarding parallels and trends that have stemmed from the Bauhaus.
    More sources to come through MOBIUS.
    I feel that it would also be good to look into sources on current teaching methodologies and education outside of America and Germany to expand on the influence of the Bauhaus worldwide.

  10. Briana Rudnik- Abstract says:

    Although the idea of Interior Design goes as far back as the Egyptians and this could very well possibly have been without their knowledge, the growth of the art of which is now called interior design stemmed from a man by the name of Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1828-1968) of Scotland. Mackintosh’s work grew out of the Arts and Crafts period and then moved towards the Art Nouveau. With this paper I am hoping to capture an understanding of the history of Interior Design and the effects and influence that Charles Rennie Mackintosh had on the history and evolution of interior design. I plan to touch on a few more modern interior designers that have been influenced by the work and history of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. This historical paper will also include information on how and when Interior Design began to make its way to the United States did not only exist in the European culture.
    1. Architecture Week: Page C1.1 September 5, 2001. (An excerpt from The History of Interior Design) by John Pile.
    – The information in this Magazine article that I will be using if I am unable to find the actual book by John Pile is the information given about Charles Mackintosh.
    2. History of Interior Design and Furniture: From Ancient Egypt to Nineteenth Century Europe by Robbie Blakemore.
    – Will be used for information on the evolution of Interior design.
    3. Interior Design of the 20th Century (World of Art) by Anne Massey.
    – Will be used for the information on modern interior design.

  11. Michelle Krewet says:

    Michelle Krewet
    History of Design – Historical Abstract
    The formation of Push Pin Studios in New York, started by Seymour Chwast, Milton Glaser, Edward Sorel, and Reynold Ruffins in 1954, marked the development of an American alternative to the International Style and the American-Swiss style. This conceptual approach, widely known as Push Pin style (Meggs, 431), shows an individualistic creative method to design, rather than the objective, rational approach of the International Style that rejected personal expression. Philip Meggs describes this as “an attitude about visual communications” (Meggs, 433) that embraced new ideas and incorporated earlier design styles. This idea is reflected in their publication, The Push Pin Monthly Graphic as well as their personal work.
    The paper will include a brief overview of the work of the main figures of Push Pin Studios, Milton Glaser and Seymour Chwast, in terms of the conceptual image and how their personal illustrative styles reflect this idea of openness and incorporation in comparison to the ideas of the International Style. In addition, it will address the consequences of the work of Glaser and Chwast for later postmodern designers and the role of graphic design as a national profession and means for social protest in mass communication.
    Annotated Bibliography
    Chwast, Seymour. The Left-Handed Designer. New York: Abrams, 1985.
    This book gives a retrospective view of the work of Seymour Chwast and will be used as a basis for my discussion of his style.
    Chwast, Seymour. The Push Pin Graphic : A Quarter Century of Innovative Design and Illustration. San Francisco : Chronicle Books, 2004.
    I am waiting to receive this book from Mobius, but it should provide an overview of the Push Pin style.
    Eskilson, Stephen J. Graphic Design: A New History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.
    This book gives the history of graphic design, putting the work of Chwast and Glaser in the context of the larger history, explaining what came before and after.
    Glaser, Milton. Graphic Design. New York: Overlook Press, 1976.
    This book gives an overview of the work of Milton Glaser.
    Hollis, Richard. “Swiss Graphic Design: The Origins and Growth of an International Style, 1920-1965. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
    This book chronicles the development of the International Style and will be used as a basis for comparison to better understand the work of the Push Pin Studios.
    Margolin, Victor. “Rebellion, Reform, and Revolution: American Graphic Design for Social Change,” Design Issues 5 (Autumn, 1988): 59-70.
    This article explains how graphic design was used in American as a method to cause social change, and references the work of Chwast.
    McCoy, Katherine. “American Graphic Design Expression,” Design Quarterly 148 (1990): 3-22.
    This article provides another perspective and overview of the history of graphic design, but focuses on design in American history.

  12. Jami Smiley says:

    Historical Abstract- Jami Smiley
    My historical paper will discuss the effects of World War II on clothing design and the clothing of the period. I will examine clothing styles before World War II and show how the styles changed during and after the war. Womenswear in America returned to a more conservative and traditional style than it was between World Wars I and II. Also, styles and designs changed with changes in materials available for use. During World War II, many materials were rationed and fine clothes were expensive and not readily available. Also, styles were simplified and more pants were worn by women because of the work they were doing while the men were overseas. After the war, style became available to more people, because of the surge in ready-to-wear clothing available. Advancements in technology during the war made mass production easier. Also during the war, clothing was produced with images of propaganda and national pride. In America, clothing was made with military uniform inspiration, and images of planes and flags were prevalent. Some textiles produced were called victory fabrics in colors like “flag red.” This was also shown in Britain and Asia. In Japan, traditional kimonos showed military planes and guns. This paper will show how the changes in culture and economy influenced the style and design of clothing during and after World War II.
    Steele, Valerie. Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Detroit: Thomson, 2005.
    Bigelow, Maybelle, S. Fashion in history : western dress, prehistoric to present. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Burgess Pub. Co., 1979.
    Pistolese, Rosana and Horsting, Ruth. History of Fashions. New York: Wiley, 1970
    Batterberry, Michael and Ariane. Fashion, the Mirror of History. New York: Greenwich House, 1977.
    Black, J. Anderson, Garland, Madge. A History of Fashion. New York: Morrow, 1980.
    These all show the fashion styles and designs of the years previous to, during, and after World War II.
    Atkins, Jacqueline M. Wearing propaganda : textiles on the home front in Japan, Britain, and the United States, 1931-1945. New Haven [Conn.] ; London : Published for the Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, Design, and Culture, New York by Yale University Press, c2005.
    This shows and explains the propaganda and patriotic symbols prevalent in clothing during the war.
    Jeffries, John W. Wartime America: the World War II Home Front. Chicago: I.R. Dee, 1996
    This talks about the economy, restrictions, jobs, and other parts of American life during World War II.
    Sorry Gary, everything is smashing together when it’s posted and I have no idea why.

  13. Abby Neidig says:

    Abby Neidig
    Abstract & Annotated Bibliography
    In times of crisis, such as war, people have turned to using propaganda as a means of influencing the opinions of large amounts of people. The goal is to produce an emotional response rather than a rational one. Whether it was the United States military influencing the American public that skipping work would help the Axis powers during World War II or Hitler’s regime putting out posters glorifying the Nazi Party, propaganda has been used in times of war ever since people had the ability to do so.
    Obviously the written word is powerful, but imagery and good design tends to infiltrate popular culture and seep into the subconscious. I plan to analyze the use of propaganda posters and pamphlets during World War II and Vietnam in order to brainwash people into buying the agenda of their respective countries. Conversely, I will also analyze the use of propaganda to demonize opposing nations in times of war.
    Aulich, James. War Posters: Weapons of Mass Communication. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2007.
    I haven’t gotten this book, but it seems like it will be a great source.
    Clark, Toby. Perspectives Art and Propaganda in the Twentieth-Century. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997.
    I am waiting for this book from Mobius, but it seems like it will be very informative on the subject.
    Cull, Nicholas John. Selling war: the British propaganda campaign against American “neutrality” in World War II. New York: Oxford Press, 1995.
    I haven’t gotten this book yet but it is all about propaganda.
    Heller, Stephen. Design Literacy (continued). New York: Allworth Press, 1999.
    This book has a section of posters from Vietnam.
    Lee, Alfred McClung and Elizabeth Briant Lee. The fine art of propaganda. New York: Octagon Books, 1972.
    This book is about the history of propaganda.
    Rhodes, Anthony Richard Ewart. Propaganda: the art of persuasion: World War II. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1976.
    This book is all about propaganda during World War II. It has more to do with propaganda in any form over posters.
    Terraroli, Valerio. 1920-1945: The artistic culture between the wars. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2006.
    This book covers the period between World War I and World War II but still has some examples of the art and propaganda being put out at the time.

  14. Josh Cook says:

    Josh Cook
    Art 428 History of Design
    Abstract: Historical Context
    This paper will discuss the influence of Saul Bass to early film introductions, and their effect of the film industry. Saul’s work for influential directors such as Alfred Hitchcock, Otto Preminger, Stanley Kubrick and Martin Scorsese brought attention to the introduction as an important element of feature films. He developed a style that created visual interest in the otherwise overlooked and unappreciated opening credits. His work on movies like The Man with the Golden Arm, Ocean’s Eleven, and Psycho forever changed the structure of movies. Saul Bass utilized graphic elements and typography to create innovative and interesting ways to portray movie credits. Specifically, in the Man With the Golden Arm, a movie about a man’s struggle with heroin, Saul has the text coursing through an arm like blood through veins. This was regarded as ingenious, and even won Saul some awards. Saul also correlated some of his introduction ideas to promotional movie posters. His distinctive style influenced numerous other designers to come. I will focus the paper on his early career of movie titles, and not so much his work on logos. He designed various logos, namely the AT&T logo, but his work on movie titles is much more influential.
    Kirkham, Pat, Martin Scorcese: Saul Bass. Yale University Press 2008.
    This book specifically talks about Saul’s work with Martin Scorcese, and his work on the intro credits for his particular movies.
    Morgenstern, Joe: Saul Bass: A Life in Film Design. Stoddart, Santa Monica 1997.
    This bok chronicales Saul’s work with movie titles, and their effect on the movie “scene” lolz.
    Terek, Tomislav: Saul Bass on Titles: Film Titles Revealed. Defunkt Century 2001.
    This book, like the last one, gives an in depth account of what movies Saul has worked on, the process, and the cultural effects.
    Martin, Diana, Graphic design : inspirations and innovations 1956- Cincinnati, Ohio : North Light Books, c1995.
    Saul has a little bit in this book, but its interesting information, and it adds a different persepective, rather than just a special book on Saul exclusively.

  15. Patrick Jones says:

    My paper will illustrate the influence of World War One propaganda posters on the evolution and development of graphic design. My research will focus mainly on the war advertisements of the allies in France, Great Britain and the United States. I will research and discuss the influence the posters had on the culture and morale of the people during this time period. My argument will attempt to examine the long lasting effects of the historical propaganda posters on modern graphic design. Although propaganda and war related posters are pretty scarce in present day society the techniques and style of the posters from the Great War remain influential on modern design. Some of the most popular designs have become classic representations of the period that embody how we look back on the life and times of early twentieth century society. Iconic images such as James Montgomery Flaggs Uncle Sam poster for military recruiting were so mass produced that they are some of the most widely produced posters in history. The artist’s ability to idolize and elevate what it meant to be a soldier were invaluable to the respective countries and the war effort. They represent much of the visual communication created and mass distributed during the early 1920’s. These posters are a historical benchmark for the time. They evolved with the changing social conditions, and provided the allies countries with a sense of pride and self sacrifice for the common good.
    Aulich, James. War posters : weapons of mass communication. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007.
    This book was checked out at the Library and I therefore have not have the chance to look at it. I have ordered it from Mobius.
    Darracott, Joseph C., ed. The First World War in Posters. Minneapolis: Dover Publications, Incorporated, 1974.
    Of the sources I have looked at this will be the most useful. Although it does not have as much writing as the other books, it does have an excellent coverage of all the propaganda posters from the war.
    French posters from World War I [electronic resource] : a checklist / Elena G. Millie, curator of the poster collection ; Kelly Blythin, assistant to the curator. Washington D.C.: Library of Congress, 1996. Library of Congress, Washington D.C.
    I have not had a chance to look at this one yet, it is on CD rom in the Library. It will be one of my best resources for WWI posters from france.
    Malvern, Sue. Modern Art, Britain, and the Great War : Witnessing, Testimony and Remembrance. New York: Yale UP, 2004.
    This source will be my primary Great Britain resource. It will also provide me with my information about painting and other arts during the time of the war. This will be a helpful resource in terms of all the art surrounding WWI, and not just graphic design.
    Rickards, Maurice. Posters of the First World War. New York: Walker and Company, 1968.
    This source has lengthy and well written overview of design during the First World War.
    Stallings. World War in Photographs Uncensored. New York: International Newspaper Syndicate, 1934.
    This source is helpful for its look into the images, culture, and memories of the war. It is helpful for a look into the life the designers lived during this time period.

  16. Sarah Schneider says:

    For my paper I plan to examine the evolution of the book and the book industry. From Gutenberg’s first bible to the industrial revolution to the arts and crafts movement, the book has been through a great deal. I would especially like to focus on book design and how it has changed throughout the years. Book design began as being very embellished and intricate, however, during the industrial revolution the design aspect was put on the back burner and quantity was the main focus when it came to the production of books. One of the main influences when it came to book production was the printing process. I would like to discuss the printing process throughout my paper and how it directly relates or related to the design aspect of books at each particular time. Another part I would like to look into is how books changed when press type and hand printed type became a thing of the past and people became more dependent on machines. These topics are only a few of the ideas from which I hope to stem my own. I believe that as I do more research and begin to form more opinions about this subject my thesis and ideas for this paper will change slightly, but as for now this abstract describes the direction I hope to go in with this research paper.
    -Annotated Bibliography-
    Winship,George P. Gutenberg to Plantin. New York City: Burt Franklin, 1968.
    This book describes the early history of printing and how it evolved as a business. The main focus of this book is the printing process and how it grew and changed.
    Lehmann-Haupt,Hellmut. The Life of the Book. London: Abelard-Schuman Limited, 1957.
    This source describes the actual process of how a book comes to be from start to finish. There is also a great deal of historical information in this source when it comes to the actual creation of a book.
    Howard,Nicole. The Book: The Life Story of a Technology. Westport: Greenwood Technographies, 2005.
    This book focuses again on the history of books and how they’re made, along with the technological aspect of book creation.
    Davenport,Cyril. The Book: Its History and Develpment. New York City: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1908.
    This book describes all aspects of book making and its history. There is also a chapter on paper making and wood engraving. This source explores more non-traditional areas of book history which should add to the content of my paper.
    Chappell,Warren. A Short History of the Printed Word. New York City: Alfred-A-Knopf, 1970.
    This source details book history by dividing up the chapters into centuries from the sixteenth to the twentieth which I believe will be especially helpful when discussing the evolution of the book over time.
    Meggs,Philip B. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. 4 ed. Hooken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
    This source, which also happens to be one of our text books, does a good job of outlining the history of the book and contains a wide range of information on it. I have not had a chance to look at all of the book history information but I have looked at the chapters and found several that contain information about my particular topic.

  17. Abby Krueger says:

    This paper will examine the evolution of postage stamps in regards to the advancements in printing technology as well as the influences of design styles in various periods of time. The first adhesive stamp, the Penny Black, was introduced in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1840. The stamp was created by engraving the design into soft steel. The steel was then hardened and impressed onto eleven printing plates using a transfer roller. These impressions were then used to create sheets of 240 stamps, which were cut apart, individually, by scissors. The 35 billion United States postage stamps printed today are produced by three security printing firms using one of three printing techniques: intaglio, gravure, or offset. The designs on postage stamps were originally portrait busts. For example, the bust of Queen Victoria was used exclusively for 60 years in Great Britain. As printing techniques improved, the variety of designs on stamps increased. Modern stamps are now mostly pictorial in design, depicting anything from animals to works of art to superheroes. Over time, postage stamps have reflected the design styles of the time period. In the 1920s postage stamp design was heavily influenced by Art Deco design. In the 1960s, the Soviet Union issued thousands of propaganda stamps depicting the success of communism, similar to the more well-known propaganda posters. In reply the United States issued only one stamp encouraging support of the local police. Postage stamps are also designed to popularize “retro” designs by mimicking design styles of the past. Postage stamp design has mimicked the popular design styles of different eras.
    Brookman, Lester G. The United States postage stamps of the 19th century. D.G. Phillips Pub. Co., North Miami, Fla. 1989
    -This book illustrates the changes in stamps during the 19th century, when printing techniques were changing and improving.
    Mackay, James A. Encyclopedia of world stamps, 1945-1975. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1976
    -This book has to do with stamps from parts of the world other than the United States, so that I can compare their relation to each other as well as to the design styles of the time in different countries.
    Lehnus, Donald J. Angels to Zeppelins : a guide to the persons, objects, topics, and themes on United States postage stamps, 1847-1980, Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1982.
    -This book shows many of the objects and themes that have been on postage stamps. Several of them have to do with the pop culture of different time periods, which is important to show how stamps are reflective of the time period.
    Tower, Samuel A. A stamp collector’s history of the United States . New York : Messner, 1975.
    -This book shows what stamps were depicting during different time periods as the United States was developing, going through wars, etc.
    Communications Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Scholastic Book Services, c1975.
    -This Smithsonian article documents the evolution of communication in the United States through pictures such as drawings, photographs, posters, and postage stamps.
    Heller, Steven. Design literacy (continued): understanding graphic design. New York : Allworth Press, 1999.
    -This book has a specific case study for The Nineteenth Amendment postage stamp, which was part of the propaganda life and times.
    Smyth, Eleanor C. Hill. Sir Rowland Hill; the story of a great reform. London, T. F. Unwin, 1907.
    -This book has a detailed description of Rowland Hill, who revolutionized the postal system and was instrumental in the creation of the first adhesive stamp, the Penny Black.
    Perkins, Jacob. The permanent stereotype steel plate, with observations on its importance, and an explanation of its construction and uses. [Boston] : C. Stebbins, printer., 1806.
    -This source has information about the processes used by Jacob Perkins for his printing press, which is what was used to create the first adhesive postage stamps.

  18. Breanne Cooper says:

    Art Nouveau: Poster Advertising and the Allure of Sexualized Glamour
    Breanne Cooper
    The posters that resulted from the Art Nouveau or Belle Époque period pioneered the development of advertising in art. Through principles of Japanese woodblock and French Rococo, bold fields of flat color combined with soft curvilinear lines came to entice the European public. Hand painted type and embellished designs formed this new genre of advertising. The selling of a lifestyle rather than a specific product lured the audience in. With scandalous imagery surrounding the promise of sexual fulfillment, designers could sell anything from cigarettes to cars. The evocative sensuality flowed freely and settled succinctly with the hypocrisy of the male bourgeois. The advertising also expelled ideas of female empowerment based on their decorated form. But overall, many of the most famous poster designs of the period capture the excitement of modern culture encompassing dance, music, and theatre.
    In this paper I want to explore all dimensions of the Art Nouveau poster; from the aesthetic principles adopted from the Japanese Ukiyo woodblock process to the idealized beauties presented in “pin-up” form. In addition, I’ll also connect the relationships between new concepts of visual culture and advertising during this time (sex sells theme).
    Annotated Bibliography:
    Eskilson, Stephen. Graphic Design: A New History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.
    This book discusses specific poster artists such as: Jules Cheret, Alphonse Mucha, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Theophile Steinlen.
    Fahr-Becker, Gabriele. Art Nouveau. Translated by Paul Aston, Ruth Chitty and Karen Williams. Oldenburg, Germany: Neue Stalling, 1997.
    This massive book explains every detail of specific artwork produced during the Art Nouveau period.
    Ferebee, Ann. A History of Design from the Victorian Era to the Present. New Yrok: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1970.
    This book artifacts the first industrial society. It also explores the relationship of the Symbolists and Art Nouveau.
    Grafton, Carol Belanger. Treasury of Art Nouveau Design & Ornament. New York: Dover Publications, Inc, 1980.
    This book is a pictorial archive of over five hundred Art Nouveau illustrations and designs.
    Meggs, Philip B and Alston W. Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2006.
    I plan on using the textbook as a supplement to all of my other research about Art Nouveau.
    Raimes, Jonathan and Lakshmi Bhaskaran, Ben Renow-Clarke. Retro Graphics: A Visual Sourcebook to 100 Years of Graphic Design. San Francisco: Chronicle Books LLC, 2007.
    This book discusses the styles, trends, and influences surrounding the Art Nouveau period.
    Wood, Ghislaine. Art Nouveau and the Erotic. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc, 2000.
    This book discusses the influence of sexual license in Art Nouveau. It explains why eroticism was one of the determining features of Art Nouveau.

  19. Zach Paule says:

    This paper will discuss the evolution and impact of illustration on graphic design with a focus on the United States illustrators (I.E. George Catlin, J.M. Flagg, Norman Rockwell, etc.). I will focus mainly on how the development of the camera and half-tones affected American artists and brought them into the forefront of the world of print design. Also, I would like to discuss how even after the development of photography illustrations are still a largely used medium, though how they are used and distributed, in most cases, is completely different. I will begin with discussing newspaper and magazine layouts and the use of line etchings, and proceed to the WW1 and 2 posters and finishing with the 60s and 70s era.
    This paper will discuss the evolution and impact of illustration on graphic design with a focus on the United States illustrators (I.E. George Catlin, J.M. Flagg, Norman Rockwell, etc.). I will focus mainly on how the development of the camera and half-tones affected American artists and brought them into the forefront of the world of print design. Also, I would like to discuss how even after the development of photography illustrations are still a largely used medium, though how they are used and distributed, in most cases, is completely different. I will begin with discussing newspaper and magazine layouts and the use of line etchings, and proceed to the WW1 and 2 posters and finishing with the 60s and 70s era. I hope this subject matter isn’t too broad, if so let me know and I’ll try and focus it a little more. I just ran into the problem of when focusing the subject matter, I’d run out of good source material.
    Annotated Bibliography:
    **The History of Illustration, Society of Illustrators
    -This rather extensive article gives an overview of illustration from the mid 19th century to present day. I will use this as a guide to lead to further in-depth information.
    **Norman Rockwell and the Fashioning of American Masculinity, Eric J. Segal. The Art Bulletin, Vol. 78, No. 4 (Dec., 1996), pp. 633-646
    -This journal entry discusses the impact Rockwell’s illustrations had on American in the early and mid 20th century.
    **The Illustrators of Jules Verne’s “Voyages Extraordinaires,” Arthur B. Evans. Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Jul., 1998), pp. 241-270
    -This article discusses the use of many many illustrations and the illustrators themselves in Jules Vernes’ books in the mid to late 19th century.
    **Women Illustrators of the Golden Age of American Illustration
    Helen Goodman. Woman’s Art Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Spring – Summer, 1987), pp. 13-22
    -This article discusses many women illustrators during the “Golden Age” of illustration at the turn of the 19th and 20th century.

  20. Lisa Holmes says:

    My paper will focus on the architects Frank Lloyd Wright and Antoni Gaudi who began their work during the Art Nouveau movement at the turn of the 20th Century. I want to show how their work matured through the movement and how they both helped to shape the face of architecture and the world through their work, be it Wright’s woodland home “Fallingwater” or Gaudi’s still in-progress cathedral “Sagrada Famillia.” Their work has inspired many modern architects such as Arata Isozaki, designer of Kitakyushu’s Municipal Museum of Art whose rectangular levels mirror Wright’s “Robie House”; Frank Gehry, the artist behind the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the curves of which are reminiscent of both Wright’s Guggenheim Museum and Gaudi’s “Casa Batllό”; and Jørn Utzon, who created the sloping façade of the Sydney Opera House that parallels Gaudi’s “Crypt of the Church of Colònia Gϋell.”
    Beyond architecture, the works of both Wright and Gaudi have left their personal touches on the world of design. In my paper, I will explore how their ideas have lived on through modern design and appear in places like jewelry, chess sets, shelving, and even Zippo lighters. Their inspirations have touched the whole world, from Barcelona to New York, Kyoto to Australia’s Gold Coast.
    -Annotated Bibliography-
    Gaudi and Barcelona Club. 2009. Gaudi & Barcelona Club. 25 Jan 2009 .
    This website has information on all of Gaudi’s most famous works.
    Arata Isozaki. Arata Isozaki & Associates. 24 Jan 2009 .
    The homepage of architect Arata Isozaki, including information on his life, education, and work, as well as photos of his work.
    Nathans-Kelley, Steven. “All the Wright Reasons.” Event DV 22(2009): 6.
    The article talks about the foremost works in Wright’s career and how his style changed over the years.
    Schumacher, Edward. Gaudi’s Church Still Divides Barcelona.” New York Times 01 Jan 1991, late ed.: 1-11.
    An account of the controversy surrounding Gaudi’s “Sagrada Famillia” in Barcelona and his work in general.
    “Great Architects.” Great Buildings Online. 2008. KMM & Artiface Inc.. 26 Jan 2009 .
    Contains information on the life and works of Gaudi, Gehry, Isozaki, Utzon, and Wright.

  21. Kate Elrod says:

    Kate Elrod
    ::Historical Research Abstract::
    We often take for granted the impact that the space around us has on our mental, emotional, and even spiritual well-being. For ages our ancestors were nurtured by their natural, expansive environments and since the beginning of art history, humanity has been emulating this spatial nourishment in their art. With the advent of the graphic arts at the dawning of mass communication (specifically during the Industrial Revolution), artists’ (especially graphic designers’) sensitivity to space has been in question. My historical research paper will be an exploration on the use of design before and after the Arts and Crafts Movement, specifically looking at how the Movement influenced the use of space in design of all kinds- graphic design in posters, books, advertising, architecture and interiors, etc. Frank Lloyd Wright was largely influenced by the Arts and Crafts Movement (and also had influence on it) and incorporated a unique and specific theory on the use of space in design, namely that “space is the essence of design;” his ideas and ideals as a designer impacted many after him and continues to inspire today, so I will also incorporate his design theory into the paper. I will also briefly explore the issue of space-sensitivity in today’s graphic design, specifically that “good design” is that which satisfies our inherent partiality towards space that is pleasing.
    ::Annotated Bibliography::
    Meggs, Philip B. and Alston W. Purvis, Megg’s History of Graphic Design. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
    -general knowledge on the Arts and Crafts Movement, some on Frank Lloyd Wright, examples of good design
    Thompson, Bradbury, The Art of Graphic Design. New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1988.
    -so much info! mostly i’ll use this book to explore the use of space in good design from the beginning of the “graphic arts” to today
    Colebrook, Frank, William Morris: Master-Printer. Council Bluffs, IA: Yellow Barn Press, 1989.
    -this is a lecture given by Morris in 1896 to The Printing School in London; good design wisdom in here, especially lines from “The Ideal Book” (a sort of ten-commandments…)
    Members of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, Arts and Crafts Essays. New York: Charles Scribner’s and Sons, 1893.
    -this book has a preface by Wm. Morris a great section on design by John D. Sedding. priceless.
    Greensted, Mary, editor, An Anthology of the Arts and Crafts Movement: Writings by Ashbee, Lethaby, Gimson and their Contemporaries. Hampshire: Lund Humphries, 2005.
    -another gold mine of design theory by A&C Movement founders
    Harrison-Moore, Abigail and Dorothy C. Rowe, Editors, Architecture and Design in Europe and American, 1750-2000. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2006.
    -essays by famous designers and architects on their projects and those of others; a few writings from Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright, which I will probably reference the most.

  22. Ashley May says:

    I’m really very sorry that is post is so illegible. For whatever reason, the return key is not being recognized.
    The Society for Environmental Graphic Design defines environmental graphics as a field that “embraces many design disciplines including graphic, architectural, interior, landscape, and industrial design, all concerned with the visual aspects of wayfinding, communicating identity and information, and shaping the idea of place.” Environmental graphics is based on ideas of functionality and organization, rooted in the study of how people perceive and process information. This paper will attempt to clearly explain the scope of environmental graphics, beginning with the historical origins of the Society for Environmental Graphic Design, founded in the 1970s by designer Paul Arthur who is said to have invented the occupation. Then, the paper will explore each of the subsets of environmental graphics (information design, wayfinding, exhibit design, etc) utilizing case studies and photographs.
    The goal of the paper will be to explain that both design and using design are social processes and that environmental graphic design involves research and problem-solving to optimize functionality and deliver a specific message in a way that is clear, accessible, and easy to understand. Environmental graphic designers are required to have an understanding of human information processes by studying works of educators and psychologists, also taking into account the challenges of cross-cultural communication and variances in literacy. Environmental design strives to leave begin the traditional narrow design role of “getting the job, keeping the job, presenting the job, and making pretty pictures,”(1) but becoming mediators and moderators for everyday communication.
    (1.) Quote by Paul Arthur, found in Autumn 1994 Design Issues’ article by Michael Large “Communication Among All People Everywhere: Paul Arthur and the Maturing of Design.”
    Annotated Bibliography
    Bedrossian, Rebecca. “Environmental Graphic Design: Examples of space and information from around the world.” Communication Arts. March/April 2008.
    Braybrooke, Susan. The Best in Environmental Graphics. Maryland: RC Publications, Inc., 1984.
    Correa de Jesus, Sergio. “Environmental Communication: Design Planning for Wayfinding.” Design Issues. Vol. 10, No. 3 (Autumn, 1994) 33-51.
    Graphic Design: USA. Sign Design: Environmental Graphics. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1992.
    Large, Michael. “Communication Among All People, Everywhere: Paul Arthur and the Maturing of Design.” Design Issues. Vol. 17, No. 2 (Spring, 2001) 81-90.
    Hunt, Wayne, ed. Designing & Planning Environmental Graphics. New York: Madison Square Press, 1994.
    Hunt, Wayne, ed. Environmental Graphics: Projects and Process. New York: Harper Design International, 2003.
    Lorenc, Jan. What is Exhibition Design? Mies, Switzerland : RotoVision, 2007.
    Society for Environmental Graphic Design. “SEGD Online.” (accessed January 25, 2009.)
    Visocky O’Grady, Jenn & Ken. The Information Design Handbook. Ohio: How Books, 2008.

  23. Veronica Morath says:

    This paper will discuss the Bauhaus’s changes in directors, and thus changes in focus, supported by changes in political climate.
    While each of the three directors of the Bauhaus were in charge, certain values or styles were evident. These values, styles, and internal politics not only affected the school itself, but were effected by Germany’s political climate.
    -Bayer, Herbert. Bauhaus, 1919-1928. Boston, C.T. Branford Co. 1959.
    -A look at Bauhaus at Weimar and Dessau.
    -Scheidig, Walther. Bauhaus, Weimar, 1919-1924, werkstattarbeiten. Munich, Süddeutscher Verlag. 1966.
    -Closer look at Gropius’s years as director.
    -Dearstyne, Howard. Inside the Bauhaus. New York : Rizzoli, 1986.
    -Effects of professors and directors
    -Itten, Johannes. Design and form : the basic course at the Bauhaus and later. New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975.
    -Basic understanding of Bauhaus
    -Forgács, Éva. The Bauhaus idea and Bauhaus politics. Budapest ; New York : Central European University Press ; New York : Distributed by Oxford University Press, 1995.
    -Internal politics
    -Neumann, Eckhard. Bauhaus and Bauhaus people; personal opinions and recollections of former Bauhaus members and their contemporaries. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1970.
    -First hand accounts

  24. Kate Ruggeri says:

    I’m still checking out sources, but my list was getting rather long, so I only included about half of the ones I’ve skimmed thus far. Most of the ones I have found focus on Japonisme and ukio-e rather than German Expressionism, but I’m refining my search a bit and using MOBIUS, as well.
    Kate Ruggeri
    Historical Paper Abstract
    This initial, historically focused paper will place emphasis on the influences of woodblock printing throughout the world on design as a whole. The paper will discuss in particular the effects that ukio-e woodblock prints and German Expressionism had on the generations of poster and book design which followed. I plan to discuss Art Nouveau and the Arts and Crafts movement briefly for the sake of transitional information from one period to the next, and focus primarily on the Vienna Succession and Art Deco.
    The paper will formally discuss stylistic elements borrowed from woodblocks for design and the motifs commonly used, as well as providing a social history as to the cultural impact that the borrowing had on the movements as a whole. In order to better understand the impact of woodblock that prints from Japan and Germany had on graphic design, I also wish to discuss the effects these movements had on architecture, furniture, and other elements of environmental and interior design. In discussing these topics, I will be better able to elaborate upon the overarching effect had on design of the period.
    Artists and designers that I plan on covering as particular examples in the discussion include: William Morris, Walter Crane, Alphons Mucha, Louis Comfort Tiffany, Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, Kolomon Moser, Hector Guimard, and Eugène Grasset. The amount of biographical history for each artist will be limited to only that which is vital to the paper (how they were involved in the particular movements, or whether their particular experiences with printmaking had an effect on their involvement) in order to focus more fully on the analysis of the works and movements involved.
    Adams, Henry. “John La Farge’s Discovery of Japanese Art: A New Perspective on the Origins of Japonisme.” The Art Bulletin 67, no. 3 (Sep., 1985): 449-485.
    This article discusses the use of Japoisme in art and architecture in Europe during the mide to late 1800s. It focuses in particular on John la Farge, but mentions other collectors and artists, both.
    Barrett, Marie-Therese. “Review: Japonisme in the West.” Monumenta Nipponica 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1993): 101-108.
    A review of two books which discuss the impact of Japonisme on painting and design in the western world. I plan to request the latter of the two reviewed.
    Boyce Osaki, Amy. “Instructional Resources: The Floating World Revisited: 18th Century Japanese Art.” Art Education 49, No. 3, Metaphor and Meaning (May, 1996): 25-36.
    This is a detailed discussion about the traditional Japanese prints and painting techniques which were emulated by artists in Europe during the late 19th century.
    Floyd, Phylis. “Documentary Evidence for the Availability of Japanese Imagery in Europe in Nineteenth-Century Public Collections.” The Art Bulletin 68, no. 1 (Mar., 1986): 105-141.
    The article above discusses Japonisme and the affect and collections gathered of Japanese art in general during the 1800s in Europe.
    Guth, Christine M. E. Review: [untitled]. Ars Orientalis 21 (1991): 149-150.
    A rewview of another book I plan to request, which discusses the effect of Japanese art on the west through 1925.
    Hunter-Stiebel, Penelope. “The Decorative Arts of the Twentieth Century.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin New Series, 37, no. 3 (The Decorative Arts of the Twentieth Century; Winter, 1979-1980): 2-52.
    A discussion of the interaction between Expressionism and the Decorative Arts movement in Germany and Europe.
    Meech-Pekarik, Julia. “Early Collectors of Japanese Prints and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal 17 (1982): 93-118.
    Meech-Pekarik discusses the collections of Japanese art held by various museums, focusing on the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City
    Morgan, David. “The Idea of Abstraction in German Theories of the Ornament from Kant to Kandinsky.” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 50, No. 3 (Summer, 1992): 231-242.
    This article is a discussion of the use of abstracted motifs found in German Expressionism and other movements in the decorative arts of Europe.

  25. Matt Mahder says:

    Historical Abstract
    This paper will attempt to examine the design of film in a historical context. I will start by briefly examining the historical aspects of film, what its origins are, and how it has evolved since then. I’ll take a look at film with the use of text, before the advent of audio recording; early cinema studios, like Edison’s New York studio; and a few landmark films such as The Great Train Robbery.
    I plan on discussing film from it’s early stages in the 1800’s, when it was merely sequence photography as a collection of photos strung together, until the end of World War II (1945), where we see that films are being used to influence through propaganda, or by persuading citizens to aid against the war. This will lead into the second part of the paper, the cultural viewpoint.
    I’ll walk through the influence it has played on culture and society in America. I will also attempt to examine how changes in film styles have produced changes in American culture. How did American film came to prominence during The Great War.
    Lastly, I will analyze how culture has viewed the cinema of the day. Has society viewed film, as an art form, or as a commodity of entertainment.
    Chapman, James. Cinemas of the World. London: Reaktion. 2003.
    I may take a brief look at some of the other early cinemas of the day in other countries like Italy.
    Dixon & Foster. A Short History of Film. New Brunswick: Rutgers University. 2008.
    This book will take us back to the earliest developments of film. It will be one of the main sources for my Historical background.
    Fell, John L., History of Films. Chicago: Hold, Rinehart and Winston, 1979.
    This book will also serve as additional background information.
    MacCann, Richard. Film and Society. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 1964.
    This book will help me research how people thought about the film of their day.
    Meggs & Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2006. pg 150
    This book will be used to discuss some of the earliest photo development, and sequence photography
    Monaco, James. How to Read a Film 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. 2000.
    This book will take a look at how film as an art is used.
    Thomas, Sari, ed. Film/Culture. London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 1982.
    This book talks a lot about how the cinema effected the people. This includes its effect financially too.
    Thompson & Bordwell. Film History: An Introduction 2nd ed. St. Louis: McGraw Hill. 2003.
    This book is going to help me fill in any gaps I have left. It’s an expansive book covering all of film history in every country that film production influenced.

  26. Ame Eschelbach says:

    During World War, in the United States alone, over 2500 propaganda posters were designed and over 2 million were printed. These posters helped mobilize a nation and aimed to personalize the war for every citizen. The bombardment of these propaganda posters during WWI and WWII aimed to reach a large audience and were often filled with bright colors and catchy slogans or more realistic and painterly war images, each one trying to grab a new and larger audience. Many of these posters, which were pushed by the government, were publicized as a means to build public-relations and overcome the fear which some factories had in regards to changing over to defense productions.
    In this paper I will be discussing the impact which these posters had in America on the war, individuals working towards the effort and the nation as a whole. This paper will also look at the evolution of the posters throughout the war as they changed and modified depending on the progress and state of the war. Many of these posters speak very loudly without saying anything at all and for that reason, have played a large roll not only during the war times, but also have left their impact on the history of design.
    Anlich, James. War Posters: Weapons of Mass Communication. New York, Thames and Hudson. 2007.
    Bird Jr., William & Harry R. Rubenstein. Design for Victory: World War II Posters on the American Home Front. New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 1998.
    This book provides great insight on the effect which propaganda posters played during the war as well as giving many examples. The text goes in depth to describe how the war aims and advertising industries collided during this period of time.
    Dowd, David L. “Art as National Propaganda in the French Revolution”. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol.15, No 3. Oxford University Press, 1951, p532-546.
    Judd, Denis. Posters of World War Two. St. Martin’s Press, New York.1973
    Judd gives an outline of the war and looks at the poster impact from the response of specific incidents such as war finance, safety in the homeland and women’s involvement.
    LeCoultre, Martijn F. and Alston W. Purvis. A Century of Posters. Lund Humphries, Burlington, 2002.
    This book speaks briefly on the impact of posters during WWI and contains many examples of posters throughout the century including propaganda posters from the wars.
    Miller, Ernestine G. The Art of Advertising.. St. Martin’s Press, New York,1980.
    This source focuses more on advertising and how it can affect the masses through the use of illustrations and posters.
    Price, Charles Mattlock. Poster Design: A Critical Study of the Development of the Poster in Continental Europe, England and America. New York, G.W. Brucker. 1922.
    Vogt, George L. “When Posters Went to War: How Americas Best Commercial Artists Helped win WWI”. The Wisconsin Magazine of History, Vol. 48, No. 2. Wisconsin Historical Society, 2000-2001, p38-47.

  27. Adam Winkeler says:

    (Sorry if there are no line breaks – I can’t seems to get the post to recognise them)
    Exploring the Federal Period of Early American Architecture
    This paper will analyze the development of Federal-style architecture in the United States including its historical origins, proliferation, and ultimate replacement. Federal-style architecture flourished in the early United States from around 1785 to 1820. This style had its roots in the works of Scottish architect Robert Adam. The neoclassical style of Adam, with its abundant use Roman and Greek designs, served as a perfect architectural starting point for the new republic that had drawn many of its characteristics from Greek democracy and Roman republicanism. Early in the Federal period, two important architects – Samuel McIntire and Charles Bulfinch – played a major role in shaping the Federal-style. The decorative ornamentation designed by McIntire, a skilled woodcutter turned architect, became a signature element of the developing style. Considered the first native-born American architect, Charles Bulfinch advanced the federal style and his works were important in its proliferation – especially in the Boston area. The Federal period also encompassed the architectural work of Thomas Jefferson. One of the most prominent founding fathers, Jefferson was also a prominent figure in the advancement of American architecture. To Jefferson, architecture was a means of providing a visible expression of the United States acceptance of republicanism and independence. These political ideas lead to designs intentionally lacking English architectural influences and instead focused heavily on ancient Roman forms. Jefferson would also play an essential role in the development of Washington D.C. which would become a showcase for American governmental architecture. Arriving in the United States in 1796, the British-born architect Benjamin Latrobe brought a much needed air of professionalism to American architecture. His training as an engineer allowed him construct designs – such as the United States Capital building – that were beyond the reach of more amateur architects earlier in the Federal period. The Federal style began to wane in the early 19th century, but its neoclassical foundation would pave the way for the Greek revival that would dominate American architecture until the civil war.
    Annotated Bibliography: (More sources on the way through interlibrary loan)
    ***Craig, Lois and the Staff of the Federal Architecture Project. The Federal Presence: Architecture, Politics, and Symbols in United Government Building.
    This book deals with the design of governmental architecture including the early Government architecture important to this paper. Most importantly, this book describes the political ideas behind many of the symbolic elements found in Governmental designs.
    ***Gelernter, Mark. A History of American Architecture: Buildings in Their Cultural and Technological Context.
    This book is a general history of American architecture but views it though the lens of cultural thought at the time (the enlightenment being most important to my paper).
    ***Gutheim, Frederick. Worthy of the Nation: Washington, DC, from L’Enfant to the National Capital Planning.
    This book deals specifically with the design of Washington D.C.
    ***Harmon, Robert. The Federal or Adamesque style in American Architecture : a brief style Guide.
    This guide describes Federal architecture almost entirely from a visual standpoint and will be useful in distinguishing the characteristics of the style from other similar styles.
    ***Pierson, William. American Buildings and Their Architects Volume 1.
    This book gives a very detailed account of early American architecture focusing almost entirely on the Federal period.
    ***Roth, Leland. American Architecture – A History.
    This is a general history of American architecture. This will most likely serve as a supplement to the more complete histories I found.

  28. Billy Frazier says:

    Billy Frazier- Historical Context Abstract
    My historical paper will discuss how Piet Mondrian is known as the “father of graphic design” due to his innovative grid-based paintings which help to establish the revolutionary grid system we use today in advertising, print, and web layout. I will begin by giving a brief background of Mondrian and how he began his artistic career with traditional landscape paintings and transition into how he developed geometric abstraction and his involvement in cubism. After introducing these terms, I will include a description of a few of his pieces of art. This will help to provide a better basis to compare the modern grid system to. This will be a transition into my evidence towards his involvement in the modern-day grid system. I will then include a fairly in-depth discussion that will focus on the importance/relevance of the modern-day grid system and how it is used in graphic design today. Within this description, I will go more in-depth into different types of grids, the construction of grid, and how exactly they are used in the real world. I may include descriptions of actual real-life examples of layout grids in order to provide a more thorough discussion for present-day layout grids. Once these two main components (Mondrian’s work with grid-based paintings and the modern-day use of grids) are shared, I will finally highlight similarities and connections between the two main aspects. I believe that this will help to provide validity to my initial claim that Piet Mondrian is the “father of graphic design.”
    Annotated Bibliography
    The Grid System.
    This website contains many different articles all relating to the layout grid system in graphic design. I will more than likely be using this site to focus on different types of grids and their relevance in the world of graphic design today.
    Meggs, Philip B. Meggs’ History of Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey: 2006.
    This is our textbook and it will allow me to provide insight into Mondrian’s transition from his traditional landscaping paintings to cubism and beyond.
    Piet Mondrian Archive.
    This website has a little bit of everything in regards to Piet Mondrian. I will be using it to provide details of his background and of his involvement in geometric abstraction.
    Silver, Gerald A. Graphic Layout and Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York: 1981.
    This book talks about the layout process in graphic design. It will greatly help me in the second portion of my paper where I discuss the use of the layout grid today.

  29. Nathan Jeffords says:

    Vkhutemas and its effects on avant-garde, architecture, and graphic design in the Twentieth century.
    Vkhutemus was the revolutionary Soviet Union school of architecture and was closely affiliated with the German school Bauhaus. It was established under the under the rule and Vladimir Lenin whom, like Bauhaus, was looking to merge the craft of the artist with the modern technologies of the industrial revolution. It was the birthplace of three avant-garde movements: constructivism, rationalism, and suprematism and one of its main focuses, under the communist party, was working class industrial design. This designing for the lower classes spawned designs that were factory friendly and could be produced easily. This began the new age of industrial design for the masses, not just for the wealthy, which we know and love today as consumerism (yeah!). Architecture was obviously there main focus and there design was to revolutionize the way we thought about building. Vkhutemas, though less known in the west than their sister school Bauhaus, had an incredible impact on the world of design and this paper is aimed to make clear to its readers of the enlightenment that was born under this once mighty power.
    Hudson, Hugh. Blueprints and Blood: Stalinization of Soviet Architecture. Princeton: , 1994.
    Has an entire chapter devoted to Vkhutemas and there contributions to architecture.
    Roman, Gail. The Avant-Garde Frontier: Russia meets the West. Gainsville: , 1992.
    This one is to establish Vkhutemases influences in the west. (whether they knew it or not)
    Guggenheim. The Great Utopia: the Russian and Soviet Avant-Garde. New York: , 1992.
    This will be used to show how the Soviet Union wanted to establish a utopian society through industrial design.
    Bojko, Syzman. New Graphic Design in Revolutionary Russia. London: , 1972.
    This will be used to show the influence Vkhutemas had on graphic design.
    Marcade, Jean-Claude. The Avant-Garde: before and after. Bad Breisig: , 2005.
    This will be used to bring the achievements of Vkhutemas into a modern light and show how it is effecting modern design.
    Viva Hotels. Viva hotels events listing. (accessed January 26, 2009)
    This was used for quick information for my abstract but probably won’t be used much for the actual paper.

  30. Kaitlyn Trotter says:

    This paper will consist of the invention and development of photography and its impact on the arts, specifically design. It will begin with the invention of the camera obscura and continue through the modern digital camera. Also, it will describe the different printing processes. It will describe why and how photography was used until it became its own form of art.
    The first part will be about the camera obscura and how artists used it as a drawing aid. It will talk about how one is made and how it works. I will then take the major cameras from each century since and discuss their differences.
    Then I will discuss the printing processes starting from William Henry Fox Talbot’s invention to the present day. Even though the modern film camera can take color photographs, I will mainly discuss black and white because of the complexity of color printing.
    Finally I will discuss the role of photography as an aid to drawing and as an aid to design. I will talk about how it has become a large part in the graphic design industry and how many graphic designers need to have a basis in photography.
    I will not only discuss the history of photography, but I will also talk about how I believe it will continue to be an essential tool to the design industry in the future.
    Annotated Bibliography
    Frobisch, Dieter, and Hartmut Lamprecht. Graphic Photo Design. Garden City, New York: American Photographic Book Publishing Co., Inc., 1975.
    This book shows the different ways to print a photograph so that it has the same special effects that Photoshop can do.
    Hurlburt,Allen. Photo/Graphic Design. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1983.
    This book is about the relationship between photography and graphic design.
    Talbot,William Henry Fox. The Pencil of Nature. New York: Da Capo Press, 1969.
    This book is a reprint of the original book by William Henry Fox about the invention of photography.
    Buckland,Gail. Fox Talbot and the Invention of Photography. Boston: David R. Godine, 1980.
    This book is about the history of photography.

  31. Andrea Bailey says:

    German graphic designer, photographer, painter, architect and student of engineering El Lissitzky contributed to the history of design in many ways. His interdisciplinary perspective gave him an advantage in articulating and promoting supremacist and constructivist ideologies during the Russian Revolution. He designed advertisements, books, and montages as well as architecture and communicated mostly strong political messages.
    My intent for the historical paper is to analyze Lissitzky’s innovations in design, specifically those influenced by his other fields of study. I would also like to focus on the specific influences he had on designers of his time and in the future.
    Lissitzky, El. Russia: An Architecture for World Revolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1970.
    This book contains biographical data as well as Lissitzky’s programmic essays and work commentaries.
    Lissitzky, El. El Lissitzky: Architect, Painter, Photographer, Typographer. Eindhoven:
    Municipal Van Abbemuseum, 1990.
    This book contains an autobiography and descriptions of Lissitzky’s work in design, architecture, photography and typography.
    Margolin, Victor. The Struggle for Utopia: Rodchenko, Lissitzky, Moholy-Nagy.
    Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1997.
    This book focuses on Lissitky’s contribution to Constructivism and his engagement with the Russian Revolution.
    Mansbach, Steven. Visions of Totality: Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Theo Van Doesburg, and
    El Lissitzy. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International, 1978.
    This book contains reference to Lissitzky’s book Isms of Art and Tale of Two Squares.
    Meggs, Philip B. Megg’s History of Graphic Design: Fourth Edition. Hoboken, New
    Jersey: John wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
    This book focuses on Lissitzky’s profound influence on graphic design and contains many of his designs. It also makes reference to his influences and his influence on other designers.
    Tupitsyn, Margarita, Matthew Drutt and Ulrich Pohlmann. El Lissitzky. London and
    New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.
    This book contains a detailed biography and several printed works and photographs of works by Lissitzky.

  32. Ashley Long says:

    Ashley Long
    Historial Research Abstract
    Filippo Marinetti’s “Manifesto of Futurism” published in the Figaro in 1909 urged designers and poets to revel in the overstimulating, energizing tendency of 20th century life. With the appearance of Futurism, the speed, noise and sheer sensory bombardment common to life in an increasingly industrial and commercial society were used to fuel innovations in both graphic and typographical design. Futurism dared to use diagonal, cluttered and disjointed compositions, and represented a visually violent appraoch to design reform. This served as a precursor to other well-known 20th century art movements such as Dada and constructivism, which further advanced the concept of relenquishing control to the whims of an ever-unstable environment.
    Emphasis on motion, intense bursts of color, and grammatical and compositional freedom prompted a typographic revolution. With the experimentation and boundary-pushing achieved via Futurist methods, typography in particular progressed into a more interactive relationship with the design elements. This paper will examine the ways in which Futurist graphic and typographical designs helped pave the way for the sort of typographic experimentation seen later in constructivist and Dadaist print designs, in particular looking at the works of Marinetti and Fernand Leger, and contrasting them with later efforts by Ladislav Sutnar and Kurt Schwitters. In doing this, the fundamentals of Futurist methodogy will be revealed, thus shedding light on the radicality of the movement in its historical context.
    Annotated Bibliography
    Bartram, Alan. 1932- Futurist typography and the liberated text / Alan Bartram. New Haven, CT : Yale University Press, 2005.
    *A look at the typographic styles typical of Futurist writers and designers. Can be used to pull specific examples of Futurist work.
    Clough, Rosa Trillo. 1906- Futurism: the story of a modern art movement, a new appraisal. New York, NY : Philosophical Library, 1961.
    *Text on Futurism that will be helpful in exploring its historical context.
    Erickson, John D., Dada : performance, poetry, and art. Boston : Twayne Publishers, c1984.
    *Text on Dadaism. Will help define some of the influences that Futurism had on this movement. Can be used to pinpoint similarities and difference between the two.
    Futurism: a modern focus; the Lydia and Harry Lewis Winston Collection, Dr. and Mrs.
    Barnett Malbin. New York, NY : Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1973.
    *Text on Futurism. Can be used for more background on the movement and its ideology.
    Jubert, Roxane. Graphisme, typographie, histoire. Typography and graphic design : from antiquity to the present / Roxane Jubert ; forewords by Ellen Lupton and Serge Lemoine ; translated from the French by Deke Dusinberre and David Radzinowicz. Paris : Flammarion, 2006.
    *Another overall look at typographical trends of the 19th and 20th century. Will be useful for examples of work, artist associations and contextual information.
    Meggs, Philip B., and Alston W. Purvis. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
    *Course textbook – can be used for general contexual information and examples of graphic and typographic designs.
    Rickey, George. Constructivism; origins and evolution. New York, G. Braziller 1969, c1967.
    *Text on the origins of constructivism, which can be used to gather background information for this particular movement and its primary frontrunners/contributors.
    Russian futurism through its manifestoes, 1912-1928 / volume editor, Anna Lawton ; texts translated and edited by Anna Lawton and Herbert Eagle ; with an introduction by Anna Lawton and an afterword by Herbert Eagle. Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 1988.
    *Text on the Futurist manifestoes. Can be used to derive information on Futurist methodology and the literary basis for the movement.
    Spencer, Herbert. 1924-2002. Pioneers of modern typography. 1st American ed. New York, NY : Hastings House, 1970, c1969.
    *Text on modern typography. Can be used for a broader look at trends specific to typograhic design of the 20th century. Will be helpful for tracking Futurist influences on later typographical styles.

  33. Nate Hoffman says:

    Nate Hoffman –
    Abstract –
    For my paper I want to explore the relationship between Art Nouveau and the fashion industry. The interests me because fashion reflects historic periods of time and eras of reform; specifically dealing with women in the arts. The time period will begin around the 1880’s and follow the growth of fashion through VOGUE magazine – an example of print media designed for the high-class reader. As design was becoming trendy VOGUE kept its readers in touch with fashions from Europe, what was in vogue or in the mode. This topic expands to social etiquette, interior design and art nouveau; in addition surrealistic work by Dali and art nouveau poster designs were on the covers. In combination with our recent readings/discussions on printing and the development of the necessity for advertisements/papers/magazines, there are many exciting connections my paper will make. VOGUE started in 1872 as weekly gazette; hand-crafted and reproduced.
    Annotated Bibliography:
    Carter, Ernestine. The Changing World of Fashion:1900 to the Present. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons,1977.
    Discusses the importance of fashion in Paris and how the influence spread the America. Also, connections between the arts & fashions.
    Crane, Diana. Fashion and Its Social Agendas: Class, Gender, and Identity in Clothing. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    Follows fashion, social changes and experience of social class in the nineteenth century. development of the fashion industry; “class” to “consumer” fashion.
    Angeletti, Norberto. In VOGUE:The Illustrated History of the World’s Most Famous Magazine. China; Rizzoli International Publications.
    Complete history/timeline of the magazine. The purpose, marketing approaches, design theory.

  34. Taylor Wysocke says:

    What contributes to the feelings of national pride. This feeling usually shows up during times of great wars or disasters, a calling to stand under a unified ideal and hold strong. This feeling can be amplified through actions, words, and visuals. Political posters during World War II are a perfect example of national ideas, they were the visuals that inspired the people to follow their leaders, sometimes without questioning the true actions behind these ideas.
    This paper will explore political posters and their influence on the feelings and morals of a population. Understanding how simple images and words helped change ideas. It will explore the psychological affect that the posters had on the citizens of the countries. The paper will start out with the historical political posters of World War II, then continue with those of the previous presidential election.
    •Bonnell, Victoria E. Iconography of power : Soviet political posters under Lenin and Stalin. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1997.
    Schnapp, Jeffrey T. Revolutionary tides : the art of the political poster, 1914-1989 Milano, Italy: Skira in association with Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University, Stanford, Calif
    •Rothschild, Deborah Menaker. Graphic design in the mechanical age : selections from the Merrill C. Berman collection, New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press in conjunction with Williams College Museum of Art [and] Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution, c1998.
    -Checked out
    •Aulich, James. War posters : weapons of mass communication. New York : Thames & Hudson, c2007.
    -Talks specifically on call to action posters in London “Through posters, the author examines the social, political, ethnic, and cultural aspirations of America, Britain, Ireland, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic.”
    •Politics American style [picture]. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Scholastic Book Services, c1975
    -gives American insight on political cartoons, posters… talking about style from the 1800-1960 range.
    •Zeman, Z. A. B. (Zbyněk A. B.), Nazi propaganda London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1973.
    -this gives more specific information on the propaganda that the Nazi’s used before and during WWII

  35. Antionette Bedessie says:

    WWII and the Evolution of American Graphic Design
    Upon its entrance into WWII with the attack on Pearl Harbor American society was forever changed. Along with the changes in gender roles, and a time of intense national pride, the role graphic designers would play in the future of mass communication evolved. Advertising developed into a “nationalized effort” during the war as the government commissioned propaganda posters. After the war this art of selling the war was extended to average products that drove the upturn of consumerism. Graphic design entered a new era of persuasion. This movement in advertising design developed the awareness between seller and consumer with
    The social roles of women in society also affected advertising in WWII America, or rather the change in gender roles changed the face of advertising. With their men away at war, women’s role in industry, self-sufficiency, and personal purpose was stressed as an effort to handle the war effort and as means of encouragement and support. The shortage and conservatism in materials also affected the design community and challenged them to be innovators. Graphic design, driven by intense feelings of nationalism, enabled the field of visual communication’s growth with the use of narrative and intense forms and images. Graphic artists were afforded a sense of illustrative freedom. This freedom gave them a broad range through which they could evoke emotions and affect public opinion instantly and provocatively. This turn in the school of graphic design helped to push the United States to the forefront of the Modernist Movement in the 20th century.
    Flaherty, Stacy A. “Selling the Goods: Origins of American Advertising, 1840-1940.”
    The Journal of American History 78, no. 3 (1991): 1010-1013.
    This article was a good overview of pre-American involvement in WWII and will be helpful for contrasting the changes in advertising before and after the war.
    Hudelson, Mark. “Abstract Expressionism” Movements in Twentieth-Century Art
    After World War II, 2007.
    This website was a good overview of the major movements, artists, methods,
    and social situations of the time.
    Judd, Denis. Posters of World War II. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1973.
    This book gives specific examples of the posters and explanations of the
    history of how the propaganda posters were commissioned.

  36. Alan Prater says:

    My historical paper will be over concert posters before the computer era. More specifically, screen prints promoting psychedelic rock concerts in the 1960’s and how they influenced the future of poster design in general. For example, Wes Wilson created posters for the Fillmore in the 60’s using his own creative style. The psychedelic “block letter” fonts which he drew himself in conjunction with his illustrations brought fourth a work of art that really stopped people in their paths as they walked by them in order to read the crazy block letters. Not only did he create works of art, but he got people to stop and read the announcement on the poster. Today, prestigious poster artists like Emek use similar techniques to draw the viewer into his posters.

  37. Becky Jackson says:

    For my historical paper I’m going to research the amount of attention and detail put into typography pre-Industrial Revolution and argue that, although they clearly paid more attention to typography then than during the revolution, we wouldn’t have developed such a strong system of typography without hitting such a rock bottom level as the typography of the Industrial Revolution. Basically, I’ll attempt to prove that without the industrial revolution, we wouldn’t have classes focused on typography or possibly even graphic design. While we might have continued the tradition of ornamental and aesthetically pleasing type, the passion that developed as a counter-reaction to industrial revolution and applied science and structure wouldn’t have come to be what it is today.
    Drucker, Johanna. Letterpress Language: Typography as a Medium for the Visual Representation of Language. Leonardo, Vol. 17, No. 1, The MIT Press, 1984. pp. 8-16
    I will use this to talk about the current passion and thought process behind modern typography.
    Schwitters, Kurt. Designed Typography (1928). Design Issues, Vol. 9, No. 2, The MIT Press, Autumn, 1993. pp. 66-68
    This source will primarily provide information to the scientific reasoning of modern typography.
    Ferguson, Lorraine and Douglass Scott. A Time Line of American Typography. Design Quarterly, No. 148, The Evolution of American Typography, Walker Art Center, 1990. pp. 23-54
    This article contains a lot of historical information that will be used to talk about the industrial revolution its typography.
    Musson, A. E. Newspaper Printing in the Industrial Revolution. The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 10, No. 3, Blackwell Publishing, 1958. pp. 411-426
    This will be another source for Industrial Revolution typography and practices.
    Hollis, Richard. Graphic Design: A Concise History. New York: Thames and Hudson Inc. , 1994.
    While this book contains some brief historical information on typography, it will primarily be used to talk about current standards.
    Woodham, Jonathan M. . Twentieth-Century Design . New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
    So far, this will be my primary source for information on typography pre-Industrial revolution, although I will also use it to talk about the other two periods discussed in my paper.

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